use of radiation sources of various types in industry is widespread
and is increasing steadily all over the world. Among the various
uses of atomic energy, industrial applications of radiation sources
forms an important component. Nucleonic measurement and control
systems, popularly known as nucleonic gauges, are used in several
industries for the measurement and control of process parameters
such as thickness, density, level and composition.
ionising radiations and radioisotopes have found significant and
indispensable uses in several fields, it must be borne in mind that
they should be handled and used in a proper and safe manner.
like any other industrial applications, they may be harmful to the
radiation workers and public if used indiscriminately and without
due caution. It is therefore necessary to ensure the safety of radiation
workers, public and environment so that maximum benefit is derived
from the use of radiation with minimum and acceptable risk.
many industries, it is necessary to measure thickness, density or
moisture content of a material. Use of radioactive sources enables
non-contact/non-intrusive measurements to be made. Many different
radionuclides, of a wide range of source strengths, are used. Beta
sources are used for measuring thickness of paper, plastic and thin
light metals, while gamma sources are used in situations where steep
plate is being manufactured or the density of coal, rock or oil
well fluids is to be determined.
are used in other industries to measure the level of material in
a vessel or tank; normally, Am-241-Be, are used to measure the moisture
content of coke or coal prior to loading furnaces. The electronic
industries uses small source to measure the thickness of plating
of precious metals on circuit boards or electrical contacts. Where
blast furnace are employed in steel industry, Co-60 sources are
often used to gauge the wear of the refractory lining of the bottom
hearth. Very large (several TBq) Co-60 and Cs-137 sources are used
for the irradiation sterilization of medical products, such as sutures
and gloves, etc., by radiation and for food preservation.
effective regulatory control, the user institutions should fill
up the following application form:-
for authorisation/no objection certificate to procure and use
nucleonic gauge(s)/Analyzer(s)/ tadioactive sources- AERB/NGU-1/2001/Rev-1.
Please note that the Checklist
has to be marked prior to submission of proforma "AERB/ NGU-1
/2001 /REV - 1" to Head, Rsd, AERB.
No objection certificate/authorisation is issued, the user institution
should fill up,
of particulars regarding nuclonic gauge(s)/analyser(s) available
in the institution- RSD/NG-STATUS/PROFORMA
(C)- This form should be sent twice in a year in the month
of January and July.
for permission to move nucleonic gauge(s)/XRF analyser(s)/X-ray
units ( hereinafter referred to as device).- RSD/NG/SOURCE-MOVE/2001
list of radiation sources used in various nucleonic control systems
in India is as given below :-
|Density and moisture gauges
|Well logging tools